Management is the process of planning, organising, leading, controlling and staffing to achieve corporate goals.

Managers are people with a lot of responsibilities that are held responsible or accountable for the performance of others and the organization as a whole.

Functions of managers

Planning: The process of setting goals and objectives and choosing how to achieve them. The goals can be short, medium or long term, tactical or strategic.

Leading : This is the process of influencing, inspiring, directing and motivating others to do their best in achieving goals. Managers lead by setting SMART goals, directing people, taking decisions and solving problems. The leading styles could be autocracy, democracy or laissez-faire.

Organizing: The process of determining work activities and roles in an organization and grouping them into suitable departments and divisions with clear line of authority and responsibilities. This function reflects in organograms, policy or organization manual and job schedules with authority.

Staffing: This process involves recruitment, selection, placement, training and appraisal to achieve organizational goals.

Control: This function involves the measurement of corporate performance,analysis and correction of deviations from the expected results. Before control can take place, standards must be set and performance will be set against expected standards.

Management roles according to heinzberg includes:

Figurehead, Liaison, Harmonizer, Leader, Entrepreneur, Resource allocator, Monitor, Spokesman, Negotiator, Disseminator.

Management model

Employee participation model allow employees to have a say in making decisions that affect them and their condition of work.

Management grid model

Grid is a series of adjacent squares or evenly spaced vertical and horizontal lines used to indicate specific position of different variables.

Management grid is a series of adjacent squares on a graph showing different management styles and models on the basis of concern for people and production.

There are five (5) managent styles which includes:

1. (9,1) Autocratic task management: In this management style, there is maximum concern for production and minimum concern for people.

2. (1,1) Impoverished/Laissez fair/NFA management: There is minimum concern for both production and people.

3. (1,9) Country club management: There is minimum concern for production and maximum concern for people.

4. (5,5) Middle of the road or balanced management: There is an average concern for both production and people.

5. (9,9) Effective team management: There is maximum concern for production and people.

Advantages of management grid

It helps manager to know the management style they belong.

It helps to identify needed personal and corporate changes and to take appropriate actions.

It helps to improve interpersonal and group relations.

It helps to evaluate different management styles and recommend appropriate ones.

Problems of management grid theory

It is classified and cannot explain why a manager has a particular style.

Managers requires the support of their subordinates, workers, and other stakeholders behave they can evaluate themselves.

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